Category Archives: Law Specialist

Prof. Sujit Choudhry’s Constitutional Democracies in Crisis and its Consequences

Professor Sujit Choudhry is a globally reputable academic whose efforts, commitment and research focus on a wide range of issues regarding comparative constitutional law and politics. His desire is to see nations move from destructive and disparaging wars to calm and peaceful democratic politics. His constitutional design also focuses on bringing change in justice institutions, semi-presidentialism, federalism, politically and ethnically split societies among others (

Prof. Choudhry recently published a book chapter set to be announced in Constitutional Democracies in Crisis, see He specifically targets what Eric Holder – former Attorney General under the Obama administration – tweeted in late 2017. In the tweet, Holder termed the firing of Robert Mueller, a White House Special Counsel, as an “absolute red line” and called for peaceful demonstration should anything happen.

According to Choudhry, the statement is banked on the notion of “constitutional self-enforcement, built around the concept of a focal point.” He expressed his concerns saying that Holder, in his position, makes no effort of citing a legal challenge aimed at obliterating Mueller’s authority even in a secondary role.

Prof. Choudhry also challenged the presidential terms across nations. He says that as opposed to a president running for two terms, an autocrat will be tempted to extend the reign forcing the declaration of a state of emergency, the dissolution of the legislature, and the postponement of the general elections. The state will breed violence as the opponent might mobilize the citizens into rioting.

In his commentary, Prof. Choudhry claims the instability in the political climate dates back to the Cold War. Citing Poland as an example, he says that since the ruling party won elections, it is only concerned in setting bottlenecks aimed at strangling the framework of the country’s constitutional democracy to guarantee a perpetual rule even in future.

Sujit Choudhry also mentions that democratic or authoritarian backsliding is another constraint to constitutional democracy. He says that the term is a shift from coup d’états and autogolpes, which makes government and rulers use legal means to manipulate policies and concerned institutions to remain in power. He pointed out to the fall of Weimer Germany as a classic example.

He goes on to write about democratic backsliding, its effects and how it is slowly transitioning nations into absolute dictatorships. In his final statement, he likens Eric Holder’s case to the democratic backsliding of Poland capturing the Constitutional Tribunal. He said that the statement Holder made is similar to the Polish one even though the U.S constitution serves as the central point where political life springs from and that its language of politics is solely based on the constitutional argument more than any other country in the world.

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Ricardo Tosto: Brazilian legal expert

Brazil is a country with a rigid legal system which can be strenuous for people who are not qualified in any related legal field. To make it in the country’s judicial system, one will need the services of a lawyer who is familiar with the laws governing the country. For outsiders who are looking forward to establishing businesses in the country, they must always make sure they seek legal counsel from professional with integrity. It is easy to find yourself entangled in court cases without your knowledge. It is important to seek legal counsel on how to establish a business in such a way that you abide by the rules of the land.

Brazil has a very high number of lawyers. There are over one million lawyers. However, among all these lawyers, not all of them qualify to represent clients. It is, therefore, significant to know that you are getting the right deal when looking for lawyers to represent you as a client. You do not want to end up with a lawyer of questionable credentials. The task of picking only the best lawyers is one that cannot be ignored. A reputable lawyer will ensure you get justice while a rogue one will only be representing to make money from you with nothing to show.

However, all is not lost in the search for a reputable lawyer in the country. There is still a good number who will meet the needs of clients and even go to extra lengths in making sure justice is served to their clients. One such lawyer is Ricardo Tosto

About Ricardo Tosto

Ricardo Tosto is a founding member of the Leite, Tosto e Barros Advogados. This is a leading firm in Brazil. The law firm has the best lawyers who will represent clients in the best way possible. Led by Ricardo Tosto, they are hired to handle complex legal cases which have been dilly-dallying in the courts for a long time. Ricardo Tosto expertise is in commercial law although he handles other disciplines.

Ricardo Tosto graduated with a degree from the Mackenzie University. He is held in great honor in the country and has receive nomination for the best commercial lawyer in Brazil.

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Getting to know Michael Hagele

Michael Hagele is an attorney and entrepreneur with a desire to always put the care of the customer first. His day is intensely dedicated to finding what will help his clients best. To do this he manages his time by splitting work up with a creative and relaxing break in the middle of the day where he often finds himself to be most creative.
As he gives counsel to his customers he also keeps a passion for the outdoors and physical activities.

Hagele is an avid mountain biker who’s favorite app is Strava; an app that tracks you and other users while you bike or run a trail. He uses physical activity as a rock to his schedule where time is of big importance to him. He claims the best $100 he spent was on TSA PreCheck because of the time it saves in the airport.

Not only is Hagele dedicated to his customers he is also dedicated to the future of technology. He frequently invests in start-up tech companies where his favorite technological development is artificial intelligence. Hagele is keeping up with the times by understanding that social media is important in the future of the business world.

Michael Hagele is also cognizant of his past. When explaining the biggest mistakes he made as an entrepreneur he made note of those mistakes and has avoided making them again. He says the worst job he ever had was working as a car washer in the winter of Chicago, claiming that he knew from that point on he wanted to take control of his education and career.

Overall, Michael Hagele is a very focused business leader. Where no one comes before the customer and where hard work and tenacity are met equally with physical activity and play time. Learn more about Michael Hagele by following him on LinkedIn.

Constitutional Advisor Sujit Choudhry Teams up with other Experts to Help Solve Constitutional Challenges in Ukraine

Sujit Choudhry serves as the Director of the Center for Constitutional Transitions. Recently, Sujit converged with several prominent constitution professionals. The team’s main agenda was the semi-presidential system of the government of Ukraine. This issue was discussed at large, and the experts dwelt on the constitutional problems that have bombarded the system recently.

The meeting was hosted by some of the most intelligent groups in Ukraine including The Center for Policy and Legal Reforms and the International Institute for Democracy and Electorate Assistance. Some intergovernmental organizations that advocate for sustainable democracy all over the world were also present. According to Sujit, the Ukraine democracy has been quite unstable. This instability has been brought about by the excess focus on presidential power, availability of weak political parties, and the legislature electoral system.

Besides Sujit, there were several distinguished individuals such as the Head of State’s advisor and a former Member of Parliament. Thomas Sidelius of Dalarna University, Vladimir Vasilenko, Sergyi Holovatyi, Viktor Musaika, and Ihor Koliushko were also at the table. All these people have vast knowledge in the semi-presidential system of the government of Ukraine and the constitutional challenges that have bombarded it, and their input was highly considered.

Sujit is a constitutional process advisor and has advised several countries on the issue. In the meeting, he pointed out that the current constitutional selected leaders should gather and discuss the policy based options that will support the constitutional amendment procedure. For instance, the team should focus on case studies and use that knowledge to come up with evidence-based information. For an update on his recent timeline activities, click on

Important article to read here.

Sujit Choudhry was born in 1970. He has built his career in the legal sector and is recognized for his reputation on politics and comparative constitutional law. According to, Sujit studied law in three prestigious universities, Harvard, Oxford, and Toronto. He has counseled more than 24 countries on constitutional matters and is an advisor to the Constitution creating process in countries like Ukraine, Egypt, South Africa, Tunisia, and Nepal. More to read on  Professor Choudhry served as a law clerk in the Supreme Court of Canada during the time of Chief Justice Antonio Lamer. Sujit is a law professor and an author.  Keep up-to-date with his latest work, hit on

A news-worthy article here on

Sujit Choudhry Thinks that Ukraine’s Democratization should be Strong and Stable

Sujit Choudhry, a renowned international constitutional expert, expressed that Ukraine’s democratization is unstable, and it should be robust enough to handle the challenges it faces now. He says that many factors are contributing to the unstable condition of the democracy including the more powerful presidency, the electoral system created for the legislature, weak political parties, and separation of powers with in President and Prime Minister or existence of dual executive. Sujit Choudhry was speaking in roundtable conducted by the Center of Policy and Legal Reform – a Ukraine based think tank – on July 10, 2017. The workshop that discussed constitutional challenges and semi-presidential system of Ukraine was co-hosted by the International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, an international organization working for stable democracy around the world.

The workshop took place in Kiev saw top constitutional experts around the world speaking how to improve the governing process in Ukraine. Sujit Choudhry was invited by Thomas Sidelius from Dalarna University and Sumit Bisarya from International IDEA. The other participants of roundtable include Viktor Musiaka, representative of the Supreme Council 1996; Vladimir Vasilenko, UN Human Rights Council representative of Ukraine; Sergyi Holovatyi, a member of Constitutional Commission of Ukraine; and many others. Choudhry further explained about the changing notion of the democratic transitioning process across the world. “We observe a change in wave on constitution-making decisions recently, and that is caused by transitional democracies,” Sujit Choudhry explained. “It became critical for the experts to collect and discuss evidence-based constitutional policy options to back the reform process.”  Read more insight from him on

According to, Sujit Choudhry is currently the I. Michael Heyman Professor at the Berkeley – School of Law. He is credited for setting up Center for Constitutional Transitions to streamline constitutional transitions between various countries by providing evidence-based data. The institution is working as a reference platform for constitutional experts around the world and helping to shape democracies.  Additional article on

Sujit Choudhry has spoken in more than two dozen countries and worked with various constitutions around the world as an advisor.  Added details  on  While coming to education, Sujit Choudhry completed his bachelor of science from McGill University and secured his bachelor of arts in Law from the University of Oxford. Choudhry completed his LL.B. from the University of Toronto and earned his LL.M. from Harvard Law School.  For timeline updates, check this link

A relevant article here on